Encyclopedia of African HistoryCovering the entire continent from Morocco, Libya, and Egypt in the north to the Cape of Good Hope in the south, and the surrounding islands from Cape Verde in the west to Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles in the east, the Encyclopedia is an A-Z reference resource on the history of the entire African continent.
Africa: Topic PageSecond-largest continent (after Asia), straddling the equator and lying largely within the tropics. Africa's first great civilization emerged in ancient Egypt in c.3400 BC. Carthage was founded by Phoenicians in the 9th century BC.
Ancient Egypt: Topic PageAncient civilization, based around the River Nile in Egypt, which emerged 5,000 years ago and reached its peak in the 16th century BC.
Ethiopia: Topic PageThe first kingdom for which there is documentary evidence is that of Aksum (Axum), a kingdom which probably emerged in the 2d cent. A.D., thus making Ethiopia the oldest independent country in Africa and one of the most ancient in the world.
Nile River: Topic PageTHE NILE RIVER is the longest river in the world and flows northward from its sources in eastern Africa toward the Mediterranean Sea.
Nubia: Topic PageAncient state of NE Africa. At the height of its political power Nubia extended, from north to south, from the First Cataract of the Nile (near Aswan, Egypt) to Khartoum, in Sudan.
Sahara: Topic PageIt was not until c.3000 B.C. that the Sahara transformed into its present arid state. The camel was introduced probably in the 1st cent. A.D. and facilitated occupation by nomads.
ThebesFrom A Guide to the Ancient World
A city on the Nile in Upper Egypt, four hundred and forty-six miles south of Cairo. The capital of the Pharaonic empire in the second millennium BC—replacing Memphis—Thebes was later praised for its wealth in Homer's Iliad.
Egyptian language: Topic PageExtinct language of ancient Egypt. Developed during four periods: (1) Old Egyptian (3d millennium B.C.); (2) Middle Egyptian (2134 - 1354 B.C.) (3) Late Egyptian (to 12th cent. B.C.); and (4) demotic (8th cent. B.C. - 5th cent. A.D.).
Ethiopic: Topic PageExtinct language of Ethiopia belonging to the North Ethiopic group of the South Semitic (or Ethiopic) languages, which, in turn, belong to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic family of languages.
Hieroglyphics: Topic PageEgyptian hieroglyphics appear in several stages: the first dynasty (3110–2884 B.C.), when they were already perfected; the Old Kingdom; the Middle Kingdom.
Rosetta StoneFrom The Hutchinson Unabridged Dictionary
Slab of basalt with inscriptions from 197 BC, found near the town of Rosetta, Egypt, 1799. Giving the same text in three versions - Greek, hieroglyphic, and demotic script - it became the key to deciphering other Egyptian inscriptions.