Documenting Domestication by Melinda A. Zeder (Editor); Daniel G. Bradley (Editor); Eve Emshwiller (Editor); Bruce D. Smith (Editor); Daniel Bradley (Editor)Agriculture is the lever with which humans transformed the earth over the last 10,000 years and created new forms of plant and animal species that have forever altered the face of the planet. In the last decade, significant technological and methodological advances in both molecular biology and archaeology have revolutionized the study of plant and animal domestication and are reshaping our understanding of the transition from foraging to farming, one of the major turning points in human history. This groundbreaking volume for the first time brings together leading archaeologists and biologists working on the domestication of both plants and animals to consider a wide variety of archaeological and genetic approaches to tracing the origin and dispersal of domesticates. It provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in this quickly changing field as well as reviews of recent findings on specific crop and livestock species in the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa. Offering a unique global perspective, it explores common challenges and potential avenues for future progress in documenting domestication.
Publication Date: 2006
People, Plants and Genes by Denis J. MurphyThis book provides a comprehensive interdisciplinary overview of human-plant interactions and their social consequences from the hunter-gatherers of the Palaeolithic Era to the 21st century molecular manipulation of crops. It links the latest advances in molecular genetics, climate research and archaeology to give a new perspective on the evolution of agriculture and complex human societies across the world. Even today, our technologically advanced societies stillrely on plants for basic food needs, not to mention clothing, shelter, medicines and tools. This special relationship has tied together people and their chosen plants in mutual dependence for well over 50,000 years. Yet despite these millennia of intimate contact, people have only domesticated andcultivated a few dozen of the tens of thousands of potentially available edible plants. This limited domestication process led directly to the evolution of the complex urban-based societies that have dominated much of human development over the past ten millennia. Thanks to the latest genomic studies, we can now begin to explain how, when, and where some of the most important crops came to be domesticated, and the crucial roles of plant genetics, climatic change and social organisation in theseprocesses. Indeed, it was their unique genetic organisations that ultimately determined which plants eventually became crops, rather than any conscious decisions by their human cultivators. The book is aimed at a wide audience ranging from plant specialists such as geneticists, molecular biologistsand agronomists to a more general readership of archaeologists, anthropologists, historians and others who wish to explore the complex processes that have shaped the often crucial relationships between plants and human societies over the past hundred millennia.
Publication Date: 2007
Pigs and Humans by Umberto Albarella; Keith DobneyPigs are one of the most iconic but also paradoxical animals ever to have developed a relationship with humans. This relationship has been a long and varied one: from noble wild beast of the forest to mass produced farmyard animal; from a symbol of status and plenty to a widespread religious food taboo; from revered religious totem to a parodied symbol of filth and debauchery.Pigs and Humans brings together some of the key scholars whose research is highlighting the role wild and domestic pigs have played in human societies around the world over the last 10,000 years. The 22 contributors cover a broad and diverse range of temporal, geographical, and topical themes, grounded within the disciplines of archaeology, zoology, anthropology, and biology, as well as art history and history. They explore such areas as evolution and taxonomy, domestication andhusbandry, ethnography, and ritual and art, and present some of the latest theories and methodological techniques. The volume as a whole is generously illustrated and will enhance our understanding of many of the issues regarding our complex and ever changing relationship with the pig.
Encyclopedia of ArchaeologyEncompasses all aspects of archaeology, including the nature and diversity of archaeology as a scientific discipline, the practice of archaeology, archaeology in the everyday world, and the future of the discipline.
Architecture of First Societies by Mark M. Jarzombek"This book is the most comprehensively global and critically sensitive synthesis of what we now know of the material and socio-cultural evolution of the so-called First Societies. Written by a distinguished architectural historian and theorist, this truly remarkable and indispensable study shows how the material culture of our forebears, from building to clothing, food, ritual and dance, was inextricably bound up with the mode of survival obtained in a particular place and time...It is a study that will surely become required reading for every student of material culture."--Kenneth Frampton Starting with the dawn of human society, through early civilizations, to the pre-Columbian American tribes, Architecture of First Societies: A Global Perspective traces the different cultural formations that developed in various places throughout the world to form the built environment. Looking through the lens of both time and geography, the history of early architecture is brought to life with full-color photographs, maps, and drawings. Drawing on the latest research in archaeological and anthropological knowledge, this landmark book also looks at how indigenous societies build today in order to help inform the past.
Publication Date: 2013
History of Women in the World by Marilyn French; Margaret Atwood (Foreword by)Origins is the first of four volumes of a momental, readable, and unprecedented history of women throughout the world. The internationally celebrated author of The Women's Room, Marilyn French, spent over fifteen years with a team of researchers and prominent historians examining women's lives and activities in civilizations and societies spanning the ages. Beginning in prehistory, Origins moves on to examine women's lives in ancient Egypt, China, India, Peru, Mexico, Greece, and Rome. In her reconstruction of wars, laws, and other activities affecting both women and men, French also traces the worldviews underpinning them. In accessible writing for a broad readership, three chapters depict how women's relationship to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam changed for good and bad over the centuries.
Publication Date: 2008
A Companion to Gender Prehistory by Diane Bolger (Editor)An authoritative guide on gender prehistory for researchers, instructors and students in anthropology, archaeology, and gender studies Provides the most up-to-date, comprehensive coverage of gender archaeology, with an exclusive focus on prehistory Offers critical overviews of developments in the archaeology of gender over the last 30 years, as well as assessments of current trends and prospects for future research Focuses on recent Third Wave approaches to the study of gender in early human societies, challenging heterosexist biases, and investigating the interfaces between gender and status, age, cognition, social memory, performativity, the body, and sexuality Features numerous regional and thematic topics authored by established specialists in the field, with incisive coverage of gender research in prehistoric and protohistoric cultures of Africa, Asia, Europe, the Americas and the Pacific.
Publication Date: 2012
Andromeda Encyclopedic Dictionary of World HistoryFacts about historical events, periods, and personalities available under alphabetically arranged headword entries. Coverage extends across every continent and every century of history. The entries have been prepared by professional historians, and Jeremy Black, Professor of History at the University of Exeter, has acted as academic consultant.
The Birth of the State by Petr CharvátIn the book titled Birth of the State, readers learn what researchers nowadays think about the rise and stabilization of the oldest statehood in the original civilization centres of the Old World - Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. The scholar takes them through essential economic, political and spiritual changes caused in those societies by the rise and stabilization of the first states. The overviews are completed with a comprehensive view of the entire theme, attempting to provide a balanced view of the rise of the oldest states not only as a question of economy, politics or power, but also as exceeding the basic threshold in the spiritual sphere. The book allows the very founders and cultivators of the oldest state units to speak: in the moments when their work seemed to be on the verge of total collapse, they spoke to their contemporaries urging them to defend the ideals that formed the basis of their civilizations. The book is intended for university students as well as others interested in the rise and development of the oldest states of the humankind.
Publication Date: 2013
Britannica Concise EncyclopediaBritannica Concise Encyclopedia is the perfect resource for information on the people, places, and events of yesterday and today. Students, teachers, and librarians can find fast facts combined with the quality and accuracy that have made Britannica the brand to trust. A tool for both the classroom and the library, no other desk reference can compare.
A Guide to the Ancient World by H.W. WilsonThis useful companion to classical history reveals the ancient world - from Scotland to India and from Spain to the Black Sea - through the numerous sites of its history and legends.
The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE by Ian TattersallTo be human is to be curious. And one of the things we are most curious about is how we came to be who we are--how we evolved over millions of years to become creatures capable of inquiring into our own evolution.In this lively and readable introduction, renowned anthropologist Ian Tattersall thoroughly examines both fossil and archaeological records to trace human evolution from the earliest beginnings of our zoological family, Hominidae, through the appearance of Homo sapiens to the Agricultural Revolution. He begins with an accessible overview of evolutionary theory and then explores the major turning points in human evolution: the emergence of the genus Homo, the advantages of bipedalism, the birth of the big brain and symbolic thinking, Paleolithic and Neolithic tool making, and finally the enormously consequential shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies 10,000 years ago. Focusing particularly on the pattern of events and innovations in human biological and cultural evolution, Tattersall offers illuminating commentary on a wide range of topics, including the earliest known artistic expressions, ancient burial rites, the beginnings of language, the likely causes of Neanderthal extinction, the relationship between agriculture and Christianity, and the still unsolved mysteries of human consciousness.Complemented by a wealth of illustrations and written with the grace and accessibility for which Tattersall is widely admire, The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE invites us to take a closer look at the strange and distant beings who, over the course of millions of years, would become us.
World System History by Robert A. Denemark (Editor); Barry K. Gills (Editor); Jonathan Friedman (Editor)This extraordinary book presents a refreshing and innovative overview of the changes to the global system over the last 5000 years. Featuring renowned contributors - each specialists in their field - this is the only volume to offer so co-ordinated a study of continuity and change in the global social, economic and political system. Key areas covered include: * International Political Economy - Robert A. Denemark * Archaeology - Jonathan Freidman * Economic development - Andre Gunder Frank * History - George Modelski * Sociology - Christopher Chase-Dunn
Publication Date: 2002
Companion to Ancient Epic by John Miles Foley (Editor)A Companion to Ancient Epic presents for the first time a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of ancient Near Eastern, Greek and Roman epic. It offers a multi-disciplinary discussion of both longstanding ideas and newer perspectives. A Companion to the Near Eastern, Greek, and Roman epic traditions Considers the interrelation between these different traditions Provides a balanced overview of longstanding ideas and newer perspectives in the study of epic Shows how scholarship over the last forty years has transformed the ways that we conceive of and understand the genre Covers recently introduced topics, such as the role of women, the history of reception, and comparison with living analogues from oral tradition The editor and contributors are leading scholars in the field Includes a detailed index of poems, poets, technical terms, and important figures and events
Publication Date: 2008
Libraries in the Ancient World by Lionel CassonThis delightful book tells the story of ancient libraries from their very beginnings, when “books” were clay tablets and writing was a new phenomenon. Renowned classicist Lionel Casson takes us on a lively tour, from the royal libraries of the most ancient Near East, through the private and public libraries of Greece and Rome, down to the first Christian monastic libraries. To the founders of the first public libraries of the Greek world goes the credit for creating the prototype of today’s library buildings and the science of organizing books in them. Casson recounts the development of ancient library buildings, systems, holdings, and patrons, addressing questions on a wide variety of topics, such as: • What was the connection between the rise in education and literacy and the growth of libraries? • Who contributed to the early development of public libraries, especially the great library at Alexandria? • What did ancient libraries include in their holdings? • How did ancient libraries acquire books? • What was the nature of publishing in the Greek and Roman world? • How did different types of users (royalty, scholars, religious figures) and different kinds of “books” (tablets, scrolls, codices) affect library arrangements? • How did Christianity transform the nature of library holdings? Just as a library yields unexpected treasures to a meandering browser, this entertaining book offers to its perusers the surprising history of the rise and development of ancient libraries—a fascinating story never told before.
Publication Date: 2001
Early Civilizations by Kate KellyThe story of early medicine is one of magic and sorcery, religion and prayers, shamans and surgeons, and ingenuity and experimentation. All manner of successes and failures also dot the backdrop of early medicine. The health challenges of the time were many, ranging from near-fatal accidents to a wide variety of mysterious illnesses. Despite very little understanding of how the body worked or why people became sick, primitive people still devised successful methods to help heal the ill and injured.
Publication Date: 2009
First Migrants by Peter BellwoodThe first publication to outline the complex global story of human migration and dispersal throughout the whole of human prehistory. Utilizing archaeological, linguistic and biological evidence, Peter Bellwood traces the journeys of the earliest hunter-gatherer and agriculturalist migrants as critical elements in the evolution of human lifeways. The first volume to chart global human migration and population dispersal throughout the whole of human prehistory, in all regions of the world An archaeological odyssey that details the initial spread of early humans out of Africa approximately two million years ago, through the Ice Ages, and down to the continental and island migrations of agricultural populations within the past 10,000 years Employs archaeological, linguistic and biological evidence to demonstrate how migration has always been a vital and complex element in explaining the evolution of the human species Outlines how significant migrations have affected population diversity in every region of the world Clarifies the importance of the development of agriculture as a migratory imperative in later prehistory Fully referenced with detailed maps throughout
Publication Date: 2014
Anthropology of Western Religions by Murray J. LeafThe world’s “great” religions depend on traditions of serious scholarship, dedicated to preserving their key texts but also to understanding them and, therefore, to debating what understanding itself is and how best to do it. They also have important public missions of many kinds, and their ideas and organizations influence many other important institutions, including government, law, education, and kinship. The Anthropology of Western Religions: Ideas, Organizations, and Constituencies is a comparative survey of the world’s major religious traditions as professional enterprises and, often, as social movements. Documenting the principle ideas behind Western religious traditions from an anthropological perspective, Murray J. Leaf demonstrates how these ideas have been used in building internal organizations that mobilize or fail to mobilize external support.
Publication Date: 2014
Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions by Wendy DonigerReligion is dominating today's headlines like no other time in modern history. Whether the issue is sectarian violence, stem cell research, or political elections, religion plays a critical role. But what is the story behind the headlines? The Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions gets to the heart of the matter by providing a deeper understanding of the religions that shape our world.
Publication Date: 2008
A Handbook of Ancient Religions by John R. Hinnells (Editor)Ancient civilisations exercise an intense fascination for people the world over. This Handbook provides a vivid, scholarly, and eminently readable account of ancient cultures around the world, from China to India, the Middle East, Egypt, Europe, and the Americas. It examines the development of religious belief from the time of the Palaeolithic cave paintings to the Aztecs and Incas. Covering the whole of society not just the elite, the Handbook outlines the history of the different societies so that their religion and culture can be understood in context. Each chapter includes discussion of the broad field of relevant studies alerting the reader to wider debates on each subject. An international team of scholars convey their own deep enthusiasm for their subject and provide a unique study of both popular and'official'religion in the ancient world.
Science in the Ancient World: An EncyclopediaCatalogs the achievements and legacy of more than four millennia of scientific thought in the ancient world of the Mediterranean and the Near East, providing a complete overview of the physical, chemical, life, medical, and social sciences of the classical world.
Technology by Daniel R. HeadrickToday technology has created a world of dazzling progress, growing disparities of wealth and poverty, and looming threats to the environment. Technology: A World History offers an illuminating backdrop to our present moment--a brilliant history of invention around the globe. Historian Daniel R. Headrick ranges from the Stone Age and the beginnings of agriculture to the Industrial Revolution and the electronic revolution of the recent past. In tracing the growing power of humans over nature through increasingly powerful innovations, he compares the evolution of technology in different parts of the world, providing a much broader account than is found in other histories of technology. We also discover how small changes sometimes have dramatic results--how, for instance, the stirrup revolutionized war and gave the Mongols a deadly advantage over the Chinese. And how the nailed horseshoe was a pivotal breakthrough for western farmers. Enlivened with many illustrations, Technology offers a fascinating look at the spread of inventions around the world, both as boons for humanity and as weapons of destruction.
Publication Date: 2009
Ancient Chinese Warfare by Ralph D. SawyerIn Ancient Chinese Warfare, a preeminent expert on Chinese military history uses recently recovered documents and archaeological findings to construct a comprehensive guide to the developing technologies, strategies, and logistics of ancient Chinese militarism. The result is a definitive look at the tools and methods that won wars and shaped culture in ancient China.
Encyclopedia of Invasions and Conquests by Paul K. Davis (Editor)This new edition is a comprehensive guide to over 170 invasions, conquests, battles and occupations, from ancient times to the present. Throughout history, invasions and conquests have played a remarkable role in shaping our world and defining our boundaries, both physically and culturally.
Religion & Philosophy Collection (EBSCOhost)Over 300 full text journals covering topics such as world religions, major denominations, biblical studies, religious history, epistemology, political philosophy, philosophy of language, moral philosophy and the history of philosophy.