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Advanced Technologies in Biodiesel : Introduction to Principles and Emerging Trends by The important strategic issue of the 21st century states that the struggle for existence is the struggle for sustainable energy. In the last few years, the interest in renewable fuels has increased dramatically due to high demand of energy and the limitation of fossil fuel. Given the rapidly increasing demand for energy which is projected to double by mid-21st century, it is expected that biodiesels will become an important part of the global energy mix and make a significant contribution to meeting energy demand. This valuable book gives a critical review on the recently emerged process intensification technologies for biodiesel production as well as the various methods for assessing biodiesel fuel quality. You will also learn about monitoring the transesterification reaction with advantages and drawbacks. The authors offer suggestions on selection of appropriate methods, which could provide a thrilling adventure ahead for all interested scientists, making this book of particular interest to biochemical engineers, academics, post graduate and graduate students, and industrial researchers.
Publication Date: 2014-02-01
Advanced Technologies in Biodiesel : New Advances in Designed and Optimized Catalysts by The inadequacy of fossil fuel is the main driving force of the future sustainable energy around the world. Since heterogeneous catalysis is used in chemical industry for biodiesel production, achieving optimal catalytic performance is a significant issue for chemical engineers and chemists. Enormous attention has been placed in recent years on the selection of heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel industry, where the catalyst could be facilitated highly selective toward desired products, easily handled, separated from the reaction medium, and subsequently reused. This book stresses an overview on the contributions of tailored solid acid and base catalysts to catalytic biodiesel synthesis, and the in uences of heterogeneous catalyst properties on biodiesel yield in order to develop a better understanding of catalyst design for the green production process as well as practical applications in the biodiesel industry.
Publication Date: 2015-05-05
Basic Neurochemistry : Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects by Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects, a comprehensive text on neurochemistry, is now updated and revised in its Seventh Edition. This well-established text has been recognized worldwide as a resource for postgraduate trainees and teachers in neurology, psychiatry, and basic neuroscience, as well as for graduate and postgraduate students and instructors in the neurosciences. It is an excellent source of information on basic biochemical processes in brain function and disease for qualifying examinations and continuing medical education.Completely updated with 60% new authors and material, and entirely new chaptersOver 400 fully revised figures in splendid color
Publication Date: 2005-11-11
Bioavailability and Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Nutrients in Wastewater Effluents by Excessive phosphorus (P) is considered to be the primary cause for eutrophication in fresh water bodies and, the increasingly stringent discharge limits have pushed wastewater facilities to achieve extremely low effluent total phosphorus (TP) levels (e. g. 10-50 ¼g/L). Pushing the P removal to the level of limit of technology has drawn significant attention from both regulatory agencies and wastewater utilities to the removal and bioavailability of various wastewater derived phosphorus fractions such as non-reactive phosphorus (NRP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP). As more advanced treatment processes have been applied to nearly completely eliminate the soluble reactive P (sRP, i.e. ortho-P), these P fractions contribute an increasingly larger percentage and often become the dominant P fractions in the final effluents. For utilities, the concern arises from the substantial capital cost that is required to research and implement more advanced treatment technologies beyond the current practices in order to remove these P fractions. On the regulatory side, current watershed protection plans (e.g. TMDLs) use total phosphorus for setting limits without considering the possibility those different P fractions may differ in their bioavailability and therefore their potential to cause eutrophication. Bioavailable P (BAP) is defined as the sum of immediately available P and the P that can transform into an available form by naturally occurring physical, chemical and biological processes. Although rarely analyzed in routine monitoring, effluents from municipal treatment plants contain various P forms, all of which may have different availabilities to algae and other primary producers. In addition, the bioavailability of different P fraction depends on the different sources of wastewater as well as the method and incubation length of the bioassay. Currently, little information is available about the bioavailability of various P fractions in various wastewater effluents. Particularly, there is limited information on the bioavailability of wastewater derived DOP to eutrophying phytoplankton in receiving waters. Therefore, it's critical to further identify DOP components and its bioavailability. This study aims to investigate and assess: 1) the bioavailability of various P fractions, particularly dissolved P fractions (DOP), in advanced wastewater effluents; 2) the nature and composition of effluent DOP and its association with effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (DON); 3) the link and correlation of wastewater characteristics and treatment process with bioavailable effluent DOP. Tertiary effluents from the selected representative wastewater treatment plants were collected and subjected to a detailed and comprehensive analysis for wastewater characterization, phosphorus fractions analysis, and bioavailability assays. Standard methods were employed for the phosphorus fractionation and speciation analysis. Waster effluent fingerprinting was performed using fluorescence spectrum and Parafac analysis to reveal the nature and characteristics of the effluent organic nitrogen and phosphorus. The bioavailability of P fractions in effluents were assessed using both chemical enzymatic assays and algal bioassay. For selected effluents, simultaneous DOP and DON bioavailability assay were performed to elucidate the differential availability of waste effluent-derived organic nitrogen and phosphorus and their association with hydrophilic versus hydrophobic fractions.
Publication Date: 2015-07-14
Biocatalysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry by Biocatalysis is rapidly evolving into a key technology for the discovery and production of chemicals, especially in the pharmaceutical industry, where high yielding chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective reactions are critical. Taking the latest breakthroughs in genomics and proteomics into consideration, Biocatalysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry concisely yet comprehensively discusses the modern application of biocatalysis to drug discovery, development, and manufacturing. Written by a team of leading experts, the book offers deep insight into this cutting edge field. Covers a wide range of topics in a systematic manner with an emphasis on industrial applications Provides a thorough introduction to the latest biocatalysts, modern expression hosts, state-of-the-art directed evolution, high throughput screening, and bioprocess engineering Addresses frontier subjects such as emerging enzymes, metabolite profiling, combinatorial biosynthesis, metabolic engineering, and autonomous enzymes for the synthesis and development of chiral molecules, drug metabolites, and semi-synthetic medicinal compounds and natural product analogs Highlights the impact of biocatalysis on green chemistry Contains numerous graphics to illustrate concepts and techniques Biocatalysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry is an essential resource for scientists, engineers, and R&D policy makers in the fine chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotech industries. It is also an invaluable tool for academic researchers and advanced students of organic and materials synthesis, chemical biology, and medicinal chemistry.
Publication Date: 2008-10-31
Biochemical Methods by The aim of BIOCHEMICAL METHODS: A Practical Approach is to make the students of biochemistry and allied subjects competent in laboratory skills. The book also addresses the essential requirements of the students both undergraduate and postgraduate students and serve as a reference for research scholars who work on fundamental biochemistry. A biochemistry manual would not be complete without a section on molecular biology and basic immunology protocols.
Publication Date: 2014
Biomarkers in Toxicology by Biomarkers in Toxicology is a timely and comprehensive reference dedicated to all aspects of biomarkers that relate to chemical exposure and their effects on biological systems. This book includes both vertebrate and non-vertebrate species models for toxicological testing and development of biomarkers. Divided into several key sections, this reference volume contains chapters devoted to topics in molecular-cellular toxicology, as well as a look at the latest cutting-edge technologies used to detect biomarkers of exposure and effects. Each chapter also contains several references to the current literature and important resources for further reading. Given this comprehensive treatment, Biomarkers in Toxicology is an essential reference for all those interested in biomarkers across several scientific and biomedical fields. Written by international experts who have evaluated the expansive literature to provide you with one resource covering all aspects of toxicology biomarkers Identifies and discusses the most sensitive, accurate, unique and validated biomarkers used as indicators of exposure and effect of chemicals of different classes Covers special topics and applications of biomarkers, including chapters on molecular toxicology biomarkers, biomarker analysis for nanotoxicology, development of biomarkers for drug efficacy evaluation and much more
Publication Date: 2014-04-02
Bioprocessing Piping and Equipment Design : A Guide for the ASME BPE Standard by The only comprehensive and authoritative reference guide to the ASME Bioprocessing Piping and Equipment (BPE) standard This is a companion guide to the ASME Bioprocessing Piping and Equipment (BPE) Standard and explains what lies behind many of the requirements and recommendations within that industry standard. Following an introductory narrative to the Standard's early history, industry related codes and standards are explained; the design and engineering aspects cover construction materials, both metallic and nonmetallic; then components, fabrication, assembly and installation of piping systems are explored. Examination, Inspection and Testing then precede the ASME BPE certification process, concluding with a discussion on system design. The author draws on many years' experience and insights from first-hand involvement in the field of industrial piping design, engineering, construction, and management, which includes the bioprocessing industry. The reader will learn why dimensions and tolerances, process instrumentation, and material selection play such an integral part in the manufacture of components and instrumentation. This easy to understand and navigate guide will assist engineers (design, piping, chemical, etc.) who need to understand the basis for much of the Standard's content, as do the contractors and inspectors who have to meet and validate compliance with the BPE Standard.
Publication Date: 2016-10-24
Chemical and Biological Synthesis : Enabling Approaches for Understanding Biology by Synthetic chemistry plays a central role in many areas of chemical biology; utilising recent case studies, the goal of Chemical and Biological Synthesis is to highlight the full impact that the preparation of novel reagents can have in chemical biology. Covering the synthetic approaches that can be applied across the whole field of chemical biology, this book provides synthetic chemists with the broader context to which their work contributes and the biological questions that can be addressed through it. An ideal guide for postgraduate students and researchers in synthetic organic chemistry and chemical biology, Chemical and Biological Synthesis introduces synthetic techniques and methods to those who wish to incorporate synthesis for the first time in their biology-focused research programmes.
Publication Date: 2018-08-28
Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology by The Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology 2nd Edition, International Edition reviews in detail the current state of the art in each of the disciplines of clinical microbiology, and reviews the sensitivities, specificities and predictive values, and subsequently the effectiveness, of commercially available methods - both manual and automated. This text allows the user to easily summarize the available methods in any particular field, or for a specific pathogen - for example, what to use for an Influenza test, a Legionella test, or what instrument to use for identification or for an antibiotic susceptibility test. The Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology, 2nd Edition, International Edition presents a wealth of relevant information to clinical pathologists, directors and supervisors of clinical microbiology, infectious disease physicians, point-of-care laboratories, professionals using industrial applications of diagnostic microbiology and other healthcare providers. The content will allow professionals to analyze all commercially available methods to determine which works best in their particular laboratory, hospital, clinic, or setting. Updated to appeal to an international audience, The Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology, 2nd Edition, International Edition is an invaluable reference to those in the health science and medical fields.
Publication Date: 2016-04-01
Enzyme Kinetics : A Modern Approach by Practical Enzyme Kinetics provides a practical how-to guide for beginning students, technicians, and non-specialists for evaluating enzyme kinetics using common software packages to perform easy enzymatic analyses.
Publication Date: 2002-11-15
Evaluation of Enzyme Inhibitors in Drug Discovery by Vital information for discovering and optimizing new drugs "Understanding the data and the experimental details that support it has always been at the heart of good science and the assumption challenging process that leads from good science to drug discovery. This book helps medicinal chemists and pharmacologists to do exactly that in the realm of enzyme inhibitors." -Paul S. Anderson, PhD This publication provides readers with a thorough understanding of enzyme-inhibitor evaluation to assist them in their efforts to discover and optimize novel drug therapies. Key topics such as competitive, noncompetitive, and uncompetitive inhibition, slow binding, tight binding, and the use of Hill coefficients to study reaction stoichiometry are all presented. Examples of key concepts are presented with an emphasis on clinical relevance and practical applications. Targeted to medicinal chemists and pharmacologists, Evaluation of Enzyme Inhibitors in Drug Discovery focuses on the questions that they need to address: * What opportunities for inhibitor interactions with enzyme targets arise from consideration of the catalytic reaction mechanism? * How are inhibitors evaluated for potency, selectivity, and mode of action? * What are the advantages and disadvantages of specific inhibition modalities with respect to efficacy in vivo? * What information do medicinal chemists and pharmacologists need from their biochemistry and enzymology colleagues to effectively pursue lead optimization? Beginning with a discussion of the advantages of enzymes as targets for drug discovery, the publication then explores the reaction mechanisms of enzyme catalysis and the types of interactions that can occur between enzymes and inhibitory molecules that lend themselves to therapeutic use. Next are discussions of mechanistic issues that must be considered when designing enzyme assays for compound library screening and for lead optimization efforts. Finally, the publication delves into special forms of inhibition that are commonly encountered in drug discovery efforts, but can be easily overlooked or misinterpreted. This publication is designed to provide students with a solid foundation in enzymology and its role in drug discovery. Medicinal chemists and pharmacologists can refer to individual chapters as specific issues arise during the course of their ongoing drug discovery efforts.
Publication Date: 2005-03-28
Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook by A complete reference for fermentation engineers engaged in commercial chemical and pharmaceutical production, Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook emphasizes the operation, development and design of manufacturing processes that use fermentation, separation and purification techniques. Contributing authors from companies such as Merck, Eli Lilly, Amgen and Bristol-Myers Squibb highlight the practical aspects of the processes--data collection, scale-up parameters, equipment selection, troubleshooting, and more. They also provide relevant perspectives for the different industry sectors utilizing fermentation techniques, including chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biofuels. New material in the third edition covers topics relevant to modern recombinant cell fermentation, mammalian cell culture, and biorefinery, ensuring that the book will remain applicable around the globe. It uniquely demonstrates the relationships between the synthetic processes for small molecules such as active ingredients, drugs and chemicals, and the biotechnology of protein, vaccine, hormone, and antibiotic production. This major revision also includes new material on membrane pervaporation technologies for biofuels and nanofiltration, and recent developments in instrumentation such as optical-based dissolved oxygen probes, capacitance-based culture viability probes, and in situ real-time fermentation monitoring with wireless technology. It addresses topical environmental considerations, including the use of new (bio)technologies to treat and utilize waste streams and produce renewable energy from wastewaters. Options for bioremediation are also explained. Fully updated to cover the latest advances in recombinant cell fermentation, mammalian cell culture and biorefinery, along with developments in instrumentation Industrial contributors from leading global companies, including Merck, Eli Lilly, Amgen, and Bristol-Myers Squibb Covers synthetic processes for both small and large molecules
Publication Date: 2014-03-25
Gasotransmitters by Gasotransmitters are gas molecules produced endogenously in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells for signalling purposes. This book provides, for the first time, a comprehensive description and systematic look at all gasotransmitters, established or proposed, since their detection in 2002. The content and scope covers the production, metabolism, and signalling roles of gasotransmitters. Conceptual advances, scientific discoveries and newly developed techniques described in this book influence our understanding of fundamental molecular and cellular events in biology and medicine. This book serves as the state-of-the-art book for undergraduate and graduate students as well as post-doctoral fellows in biomedical disciplines and toxicologists studying the toxic mechanisms of gasotransmitters in the environment. It will also be welcomed by researchers in university and research institutes, government agencies, pharmaceutical and medical instrument industry, and clinical practice.
Publication Date: 2018-06-29
Immunodiagnostics and Patient Safety by Today most of immunochemistry methods for the determination of proteins, peptides, drugs, and many small molecules are fully automated, with good precision, excellent sensitivity and short reaction time. However, inaccuracy due to poor standardization and the presence of interfering substances in biological samples is still a serious and life-threatening issue. Proper validation of methods and quality assurance have little effect on frequency of occurrence of false positive or false negative results, which, if unrecognized, may lead to patient's misdiagnosis, unnecessary treatment or even unnecessary surgery. Deep knowledge of basic principles of immunochemical methods (antigen-antibody reaction, standardization, matrix effect, limit of detection, cross-reactivity, etc.), sources of analyte-independent interferences (preanalitycal errors, the presence of binding proteins, the presence of autoantibodies) and analyte-dependent interferences (presence of heterophilic antibodies, high-dose effect) are very important to understand, detect, reduce and/or eliminate the interferences. This book helps to reduce false results and, at the same time, improve patient's care and patient's safety.
Publication Date: 2011-05-17
Iron Cycle in Oceans by This book presents an up to date view of iron biogeochemistry in the ocean. It encompasses the description of iron speciation, the analytical methods used to measure the different iron forms in seawater and the different iron biogeochemical models
Publication Date: 2016-12-19
Life's Engines : How Microbes Made Earth Habitable by For almost four billion years, microbes had the primordial oceans all to themselves. The stewards of Earth, these organisms transformed the chemistry of our planet to make it habitable for plants, animals, and us. Life's Engines takes readers deep into the microscopic world to explore how these marvelous creatures made life on Earth possible—and how human life today would cease to exist without them.Paul Falkowski looks'under the hood'of microbes to find the engines of life, the actual working parts that do the biochemical heavy lifting for every living organism on Earth. With insight and humor, he explains how these miniature engines are built—and how they have been appropriated by and assembled like Lego sets within every creature that walks, swims, or flies. Falkowski shows how evolution works to maintain this core machinery of life, and how we and other animals are veritable conglomerations of microbes.A vibrantly entertaining book about the microbes that support our very existence, Life's Engines will inspire wonder about these elegantly complex nanomachines that have driven life since its origin. It also issues a timely warning about the dangers of tinkering with that machinery to make it more'efficient'at meeting the ever-growing demands of humans in the coming century.
Publication Date: 2015-04-27
Ligands, Polymers and Amino Acids by This book presents and discusses a variety of research done in the field of biochemistry, with a particular focus on ligands, polymers and amino acids. Topics discussed include G-Quadruplex Ligands and the evaluation of a synthetic biomimetic ligand used for the purification of therapeutic proteins; phytoestrogens biochemical aspects and biological activities; increase in amino acids and ammonia during liquefaction of semen; the structure of inhibitor polymers and prebiosis with fermentable carbohydrates in pig nutrition.
Publication Date: 2011-01-01
Melanin, the Master Molecule by Melanin is a biological molecule associated with pigmentation in humans and animals. However, melanin has been observed to have other functions such as neuroprotection and energy production.
Publication Date: 2018-06-04
Microbial Energy Conversion by The book provides an overview on various microorganisms and their industrialization in energy conversion, such as ethanol fermentation, butanol fermentation, biogas fermentation and fossil energy conversion. It also covers microbial oil production, hydrogen production and electricity generation. The content is up to date and suits well for both researchers and industrial audiences.
Publication Date: 2018-05-22
Molecules and Medicine by This book is appropriate for a broad readership, starting with curious and thoughtful college undergraduates and reaching beyond to professors and researchers in the life sciences, chemistry, and medicine. This book provides, for the first time ever, a completely integrated look at chemistry, biology, drug discovery, and medicine.
Call Number: RM300.C67 2007
Publication Date: 2007-08-31
Transmembrane Transporters by A must-have far-reaching text that provides readers with a state-of-the-art molecule update on transmembrane transporters, focusing on the methodological approaches currently employed to better understand how transporters work and how they can be used in cutting edge therapies. Each chapter begins with an overview of the importnat biological questions presently being considered in their field, then presents scientific approaches to address these questions. In explaining approaches, the authors cover bench-top protocols, conceptual frameworks, data obtained, and pitfalls common to the techniques.
Publication Date: 2002-09-09
Your Brain on Food : How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings by In Your Brain on Food, Dr. Gary Wenk expands his discussion of the effects of specific foods on the brain in a completely updated second edition. From investigations into the benefits and risks of supplements, to the action of gluten in the brain and marijuana's potential for pain relief, Dr. Wenk draws on the latest science to answer a range of fascinating questions such as:-Is your aluminum cookware hurting you?-Can tryptophan supplements improve your mood?-How do fruits and vegetables protect us from aging?-Why does eating chocolate make you feel so angry?-Does our brain want us to be obese?Never forget--everything we consume can affect how we think, feel, and act.NEW TO THIS EDITION-Updated second edition greatly expands discussions on the effects of specific foods on the brain-Clarifies the role of biorhythms in how food affects the brain and behavior-Investigates why our brain makes us crave fat, salt, and sugar
Publication Date: 2014-12-30